Doctoral studies

subject area
university type - Portugal  
university status  
Lisbon, Portugal



Language: Portuguese Studies in Portuguese
Subject area: biology
Kind of studies: full-time studies
University website:
Biology is the natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution. Modern biology is a vast field, composed of many branches. Despite the broad scope and the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. Biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation of new species. Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis. See glossary of biology.
Biology is Engineering.
Daniel Dennett (1995) Darwin's Dangerous Idea
The ultimate aim of the modern movement in biology is in fact to explain all biology in terms of physics and chemistry.
Francis Crick (1966) Of Molecules and Men. p. 10.
Today, the central and still fascinating questions for biologists concern the mechanisms by which evolution occurs."
Helena Curtis and N. Sue Barnes, Biology 5th ed. 1989, Worth Publishers, p. 972
We have reached planetary boundaries - human pressures on finite, earth systems are at a tipping point. However, the technology to address this near catastrophe is now within our reach, according to expert in sustainable development, Jeffrey Sachs.

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