Doctoral studies

subject area
university type - Czech Republic  
university status  
Hradec Králové, Czech Republic



Language: Czech Studies in Czech
Subject area: biology
Kind of studies: full-time studies, part-time studies
University website:
Biology is the natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution. Modern biology is a vast field, composed of many branches. Despite the broad scope and the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. Biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation of new species. Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis. See glossary of biology.
When he meets a simple geometrical construction, for instance in the honeycomb, he would fain refer it to physical instinct, or to skill and ingenuity, rather than to the operation of physical forces or mathematical laws; when he sees in a snail, or nautilus, or tiny foraminiferal or radiolarian shell a close approach to sphere or spiral, he is prone of old habit to believe that after all it is something more than a spiral or a sphere, and that in this "something more" there lies what neither mathematics nor physics can explain. In short, he is deeply reluctant to compare the living with the dead, or to explain by geometry or by mechanics the things which have their part in the mystery of life.
D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson, On Growth and Form (1917)
Purpose has no place in biology, but history has no meaning without it.
George Kubler The Shape of Time, 1982, p. 8
Biology is Engineering.
Daniel Dennett (1995) Darwin's Dangerous Idea
From air quality to solar radiation, information on our atmosphere is of crucial importance to us all. In order to make the right decisions for our current and future quality of life, European decision makers, businesses and citizens need reliable and up-to-date information on exactly what is going on in our atmosphere now and what to expect in the future.

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