Toruń, Poland

Economics and Finance

Ekonomia i finanse

Language: Polish Studies in Polish
Subject area: economy and administration
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Economics () is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Finance is a field that deals with the study of investments. It includes the dynamics of assets and liabilities over time under conditions of different degrees of uncertainties and risks. Finance can also be defined as the science of money management. Market participants aim to price assets based on their risk level, fundamental value, and their expected rate of return. Finance can be broken into three sub-categories: public finance, corporate finance and personal finance.
The field of economics is not exempt from the consequences of chaos and complexity. Marketplaces are indeterminate; value is subjective; and outcomes are subject to interpretation. Economic forecasting is just as nebulous, being based on the probability of statistical information that may or may not be accurate.
L.K. Samuels, In Defense of Chaos: The Chaology of Politics, Economics and Human Action, Cobden Press (2013) p. 16.
Economists have never allowed their analysis to be influenced by psychologists of their time, but have always framed for themselves such assumptions about psychical processes as they have thought it desirable to make.
Joseph Schumpeter, History of Economic Analysis, 1945. p. 27
Mit dem Jahr 1830 trat die ein für allemal entscheidende Krise ein. Die Bourgeoisie hatte in Frankreich und England politische Macht erobert. Von da an gewann der Klassenkampf, praktisch und theoretisch, mehr und mehr ausgesprochne und drohende Formen. Er läutete die Totenglocke der wissenschaftlichen bürgerlichen Ökonomie. Es handelte sich jetzt nicht mehr darum, ob dies oder jenes Theorem wahr sei, sondern ob es dem Kapital nützlich oder schädlich, bequem oder unbequem, ob polizeiwidrig oder nicht. An die Stelle uneigennütziger Forschung trat bezahlte Klopffechterei, an die Stelle unbefangner wissenschaftlicher Untersuchung das böse Gewissen und die schlechte Absicht der Apologetik.
With the year 1830 came the decisive crisis. In France and in England the bourgeoise had conquered political power. Thenceforth, the class-struggle, practically as well as theoretically, took on more and more outspoken and threatening forms. It sounded the death knell of scientific bourgeois economy. It was no longer a question, whether this theorem or that was true, but whether it was useful to capital or harmful, expedient or inexpedient, politically dangerous or not. In place of disinterested enquirers, there were hired prize-fighters; in place of genuine scientific research, the bad consequence and the evil intent of apologetic. Karl Marx, Capital, Postscript to the Second Edition Karl Marx, Capital, Postscript to the Second Edition
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