Doctoral studies

subject area
university type - Austria  
university status  
Vienna, Austria

Natural Sciences and in Life Sciences

Naturwissenschaften aus dem Bereich der Lebenswissenschaften

Language: German Studies in German
Subject area: physical science, environment
University website:
Doctor of Philosophy, PhD
6 Semester
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate. Various forms of life exist, such as plants, animals, fungi, protists, archaea, and bacteria. The criteria can at times be ambiguous and may or may not define viruses, viroids, or potential synthetic life as "living". Biology is the science concerned with the study of life.
The great fault of all ethics hitherto has been that they believed themselves to have to deal only with the relations of man to man. In reality, however, the question is what is his attitude to the world and all life that comes within his reach. A man is ethical only when life, as such, is sacred to him, and that of plants and animals as that of his fellow men, and when he devotes himself helpfully to all life that is in need of help. Only the universal ethic of the feeling of responsibility in an ever-widening sphere for all that lives—only that ethic can be founded in thought…. The ethic of Reverence for Life, therefore, comprehends within itself everything that can be described as love, devotion, and sympathy whether in suffering, joy, or effort.
Albert Schweitzer, Out of My Life and Thought, An Autobiography, trans. C. T. Campion, chapter 13, p. 188 (1933).
I know not if the dark or bright
Shall be my lot;
If that wherein my hopes delight
Be best or not.
Henry M. Alford, Life's Answer.
Life is a comedy.
Horace Walpole, letter to Sir Horace Mann, Dec. 31, 1769. In a letter to same, March 5, 1772. "This world is a comedy, not Life".
An EU-funded project is developing hydrophobic coatings that give ice and water droplets little chance of sticking to wind turbine blades. The new coatings should help reduce wind farm maintenance costs and increase turbine lifespan.

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